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Latvia Deflation Deepens in October Latvia's consumer prices dropped 0. It was the biggest price decline since June, as cost was down for housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels At the same time, food and non-alcoholic beverages inflation slowed to 1.
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Context sentences Context sentences for "Lettland" in English These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate.
Swedish För Lettland och de andra baltiska staterna är denna erfarenhet särskilt tragisk. Swedish Alla tre har ansenliga rysktalande minoriteter, i synnerhet Lettland och Estland.
Swedish I Lettland gäller en ny konkurrenslag som i huvudsak följer EG: s regelverk. Amber , fossilized tree resin, is one of Latvia's most important cultural symbols.
In ancient times, amber found along the Baltic Sea coast was sought by Vikings as well as traders from Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire.
This led to the development of the Amber Road. Several nature reserves protect unspoiled landscapes with a variety of large animals. At Pape Nature Reserve , where European bison , wild horses, and recreated aurochs have been reintroduced, there is now an almost complete Holocene megafauna also including moose, deer, and wolf.
Selonia , a part of Zemgale, is sometimes considered culturally distinct region, but it is not part of any formal division.
The borders of historical and cultural regions usually are not explicitly defined and in several sources may vary. In formal divisions, Riga region, which includes the capital and parts of other regions that have a strong relationship with the capital, is also often included in regional divisions; e.
Under this division Riga region includes large parts of what traditionally is considered Vidzeme, Courland, and Zemgale.
Statistical regions of Latvia , established in accordance with the EU Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics , duplicate this division, but divides Riga region into two parts with the capital alone being a separate region.
The seat unicameral Latvian parliament, the Saeima , is elected by direct popular vote every four years.
The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election, also held every four years. The president appoints a prime minister who, together with his cabinet, forms the executive branch of the government, which has to receive a confidence vote by the Saeima.
This system also existed before World War II. Latvia is a member of the United Nations, European Union , Council of Europe , NATO , OECD , OSCE , IMF , and WTO.
It is also a member of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and Nordic Investment Bank. It was a member of the League of Nations — Latvia is part of the Schengen Area and joined the Eurozone on 1 January Latvia has established diplomatic relations with countries.
It has 44 diplomatic and consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 9 permanent representations abroad.
There are 37 foreign embassies and 11 international organisations in Latvia's capital Riga. Latvia hosts one European Union institution, the Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications BEREC.
Latvia's foreign policy priorities include co-operation in the Baltic Sea region, European integration, active involvement in international organisations, contribution to European and transatlantic security and defence structures, participation in international civilian and military peacekeeping operations, and development co-operation, particularly the strengthening of stability and democracy in the EU's Eastern Partnership countries.
Since the early s, Latvia has been involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with its neighbours Estonia and Lithuania , and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries.
The Baltic Council is the joint forum of the interparliamentary Baltic Assembly BA and the intergovernmental Baltic Council of Ministers BCM.
Interparliamentary co-operation between the Baltic Assembly and Nordic Council was signed in and since annual meetings are held as well as regular meetings on other levels.
Latvia participates in the Northern Dimension and Baltic Sea Region Programme , European Union initiatives to foster cross-border co-operation in the Baltic Sea region and Northern Europe.
The secretariat of the Northern Dimension Partnership on Culture NDPC will be located in Riga. Department of State diplomatic framework for co-operation with the Nordic-Baltic countries.
Latvia hosted the NATO Summit and since then the annual Riga Conference has become a leading foreign and security policy forum in Northern Europe.
According to the reports by Freedom House and the US Department of State , human rights in Latvia are generally respected by the government:   Latvia is ranked above-average among the world's sovereign states in democracy,  press freedom ,  privacy  and human development.
The country has a large ethnic Russian community, which was guaranteed basic rights under the constitution and international human rights laws ratified by the Latvian government.
Latvia's defence concept is based upon the Swedish-Finnish model of a rapid response force composed of a mobilisation base and a small group of career professionals.
From 1 January , Latvia switched to a professional fully contract-based army. Latvia participates in international peacekeeping and security operations.
Latvian armed forces have contributed to NATO and EU military operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina — , Albania , Kosovo — , Macedonia , Iraq — , Afghanistan since , Somalia since and Mali since Latvian civilian experts have contributed to EU civilian missions: border assistance mission to Moldova and Ukraine — , rule of law missions in Iraq and and Kosovo since , police mission in Afghanistan since and monitoring mission in Georgia since Latvia participates in several NATO Centres of Excellence : Civil-Military Co-operation in the Netherlands, Cooperative Cyber Defence in Estonia and Energy Security in Lithuania.
It plans to establish the NATO Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence in Riga. Latvia co-operates with Estonia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives:.
Future co-operation will include sharing of national infrastructures for training purposes and specialisation of training areas BALTTRAIN and collective formation of battalion-sized contingents for use in the NATO rapid-response force.
Latvia is a member of the World Trade Organization and the European Union On 1 January , the Euro became the country's currency, superseding the Lats.
Since the year , Latvia has had one of the highest GDP growth rates in Europe. The economic crisis of proved earlier assumptions that the fast-growing economy was heading for implosion of the economic bubble , because it was driven mainly by growth of domestic consumption , financed by a serious increase of private debt , as well as a negative foreign trade balance.
Privatisation in Latvia is almost complete. Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been privatised, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies.
Foreign investment in Latvia is still modest compared with the levels in north-central Europe. A law expanding the scope for selling land, including to foreigners, was passed in Representing Eager to join Western economic institutions like the World Trade Organization , OECD , and the European Union , Latvia signed a Europe Agreement with the EU in —with a 4-year transition period.
Latvia and the United States have signed treaties on investment, trade, and intellectual property protection and avoidance of double taxation.
In Latvia launched a Residence by Investment program Golden Visa in order to attract foreign investors and make local economy benefit from it. The Latvian economy entered a phase of fiscal contraction during the second half of after an extended period of credit-based speculation and unrealistic appreciation in real estate values.
Latvia's unemployment rate rose sharply in this period from a low of 5. Paul Krugman , the Nobel Laureate in economics for , wrote in his New York Times Op-Ed column on 15 December The most acute problems are on Europe's periphery, where many smaller economies are experiencing crises strongly reminiscent of past crises in Latin America and Asia: Latvia is the new Argentina .
However, by , commentators   noted signs of stabilisation in the Latvian economy. The strengthening regional economy is supporting Latvian production and exports, while the sharp swing in the current account balance suggests that the country's 'internal devaluation' is working.
The IMF concluded the First Post-Program Monitoring Discussions with the Republic of Latvia in July announcing that Latvia's economy has been recovering strongly since , following the deep downturn in — Real GDP growth of 5.
The growth momentum has continued into and despite deteriorating external conditions, and the economy is expected to expand by 4.
The unemployment rate has receded from its peak of more than 20 percent in to around 9. Transit between Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan as well as other Asian countries and the West is large.
Most transit traffic uses these and half the cargo is crude oil and oil products. Apart from road and railway connections, Ventspils is also linked to oil extraction fields and transportation routes of Russian Federation via system of two pipelines from Polotsk , Belarus.
Riga International Airport is the busiest airport in the Baltic states with 7. It has direct flight to over 80 destinations in 30 countries.
Latvia's railway network is currently incompatible with European standard gauge lines. In there were a total of , licensed vehicles in Latvia.
In the recent years a couple of dozen of wind farms as well as biogas or biomass power stations of different scale have been built in Latvia.
The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. Every year more boys are born. Until the age of 39, there are more male than female.
From the age of 40 — more female. And from 70 females are 2,3 times more than males. Latvia's population has been multiethnic for centuries, though the demographics shifted dramatically in the 20th century due to the World Wars, the emigration and removal of Baltic Germans , the Holocaust , and occupation by the Soviet Union.
According to the Russian Empire Census of , Latvians formed As of March , Latvians form about There were , "non-citizens" living in Latvia or In some cities, e.
Despite the fact that the proportion of ethnic Latvians has been steadily increasing for more than a decade, ethnic Latvians also make up slightly less than a half of the population of the capital city of Latvia — Riga.
The sole official language of Latvia is Latvian , which belongs to the Baltic language sub-group of the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
English is also widely accepted in Latvia in business and tourism. On 18 February , Latvia held a constitutional referendum on whether to adopt Russian as a second official language.
Beginning in , instruction in Russian language will be gradually discontinued in private colleges and universities in Latvia, as well as general instruction in Latvian public high schools ,   except for subjects related to culture and history of the Russian minority, such as Russian language and literature classes.
Since then, Lutheranism has declined to a slightly greater extent than Roman Catholicism in all three Baltic states. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated , members in , was affected most adversely.
An internal document of 18 March , near the end of communist rule, spoke of an active membership that had shrunk to only 25, in Latvia, but the faith has since experienced a revival.
The country's Orthodox Christians belong to the Latvian Orthodox Church , a semi-autonomous body within the Russian Orthodox Church.
In , there were religious Jews , Muslims and Hindus. Most of the Hindus are local converts from the work of the Hare Krishna movement ; some are foreign workers from India.
The University of Latvia and Riga Technical University are two major universities in the country, both established on the basis of [ clarification needed ] Riga Polytechnical Institute and located in Riga.
Both nowadays cover a variety of different fields. The University of Daugavpils is another significant centre of education. Latvia closed schools between and , which is a Latvian policy in science and technology has set out the long-term goal of transitioning from labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy.
Latvia plans to base the development of its scientific potential on existing scientific traditions, particularly in organic chemistry, medical chemistry, genetic engineering, physics, materials science and information technologies.
The Latvian healthcare system is a universal programme , largely funded through government taxation. Traditional Latvian folklore , especially the dance of the folk songs , dates back well over a thousand years.
More than 1. Between the 13th and 19th centuries, Baltic Germans , many of whom were originally of non-German ancestry but had been assimilated into German culture , formed the upper class.
It has survived in German Baltic families to this day, in spite of their dispersal to Germany, the United States, Canada and other countries in the early 20th century.
However, most indigenous Latvians did not participate in this particular cultural life. John the Baptist. In the 19th century, Latvian nationalist movements emerged.
They promoted Latvian culture and encouraged Latvians to take part in cultural activities. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century is often regarded by Latvians as a classical era of Latvian culture.
Posters show the influence of other European cultures, for example, works of artists such as the Baltic-German artist Bernhard Borchert and the French Raoul Dufy.
The Latvian Song and Dance Festival is an important event in Latvian culture and social life. It has been held since , normally every five years.
Approximately 30, performers altogether participate in the event. After incorporation into the Soviet Union , Latvian artists and writers were forced to follow the socialist realism style of art.
During the Soviet era, music became increasingly popular, with the most popular being songs from the s.
At this time, songs often made fun of the characteristics of Soviet life and were concerned about preserving Latvian identity. This aroused popular protests against the USSR and also gave rise to an increasing popularity of poetry.
Since independence, theatre, scenography , choir music, and classical music have become the most notable branches of Latvian culture.
During July , Riga hosted the 8th World Choir Games as it played host to over 27, choristers representing over choirs and over 70 countries.
The festival is the biggest of its kind in the world and is held every two years in a different host city. Starting in Latvia hosts the inaugural Riga Jurmala Music Festival , a new festival in which world-famous orchestras and conductors perform across four weekends during the summer.
The festival takes place at the Latvian National Opera , the Great Guild, and the Great and Small Halls of the Dzintari Concert Hall.
This year features the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra , the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra , the London Symphony Orchestra and the Russian National Orchestra.
Latvian cuisine typically consists of agricultural products, with meat featuring in most main meal dishes. Fish is commonly consumed due to Latvia's location on the Baltic Sea.
Latvian cuisine has been influenced by the neighbouring countries. Common ingredients in Latvian recipes are found locally, such as potatoes, wheat, barley, cabbage, onions, eggs, and pork.
Latvian food is generally quite fatty, and uses few spices. Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians.
Ice hockey is usually considered the most popular sport in Latvia. The national tournament is the Latvian Hockey Higher League , held since The IIHF World Championship was held in Riga.
The second most popular sport is basketball. Latvia has a long basketball tradition, as the Latvian national basketball team won the first ever EuroBasket in and silver medals in , after losing the final to Lithuania by one point.
BK Ventspils , which participates in EuroChallenge , is the second strongest basketball club in Latvia, previously winning LBL eight times and BBL in Other popular sports include football , floorball , tennis, volleyball, cycling, bobsleigh and skeleton.
The Latvian national football team 's only major FIFA tournament participation has been the UEFA European Championship.
Latvia has participated successfully in both Winter and Summer Olympics. In Boxing, Mairis Briedis is the first Latvian to win a boxing world title, having held the WBC cruiserweight title from to , and the WBO cruiserweight title in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For Latvian student corporation, see Lettonia corporation. Country on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. God Bless Latvia! Latvian is the sole official language.
Main article: History of Latvia. Main articles: Terra Mariana , Livonian Crusade , and Northern Crusades. Main articles: Swedish Livonia , Duchy of Courland and Semigallia , Duchy of Livonia , and Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Soviet occupation of Latvia in , German occupation of Latvia during World War II , The Holocaust in Latvia , Latvian partisans , and Latvian anti-Nazi resistance movement — Main articles: Occupation of Latvia by Soviet Union — , Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic , and Stalinism.
Further information: Singing Revolution , Baltic Way , and On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia. Main article: Geography of Latvia.
See also: Baltic Sea , Baltic states , and Northern Europe. Humid continental climate warm summer subtype.
Oceanic climate. Main article: Administrative divisions of Latvia. See also: List of cities in Latvia , Planning regions of Latvia , Statistical regions of Latvia , and Historical regions of Latvia.
Main articles: Politics of Latvia , Parliament of Latvia , and Government of Latvia. Main article: Foreign relations of Latvia.
Main article: Human rights in Latvia. Main article: Military of Latvia. Main article: Economy of Latvia. Main article: — Latvian financial crisis.
Main article: Transport in Latvia. Main article: Demographics of Latvia. Residents of Latvia by ethnicity  Latvians. Main articles: Latvian people , Latvian Russians , Latvian Germans , Latvian Jews , Latgalians modern , Livonians , and Gauja Estonians.
Further information: Language policy in Latvia. Main article: Religion in Latvia. Religion in Latvia  Lutheranism.
Main article: Education in Latvia. See also: List of universities in Latvia. Main article: Health in Latvia. Main article: Culture of Latvia.
Main article: Latvian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Latvia. Latvia portal. Social Statistics Department of Latvia.
Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original on 26 November Retrieved 25 July The Latvian Saga 11th ed.
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